Ways of Seeing an Object
The Tree Picture

1) View the unit as an isolated, static entity.

What are its contrastive
features (i.e,. the features that differentiate it from similar things and serve to identify it)?

4) View the unit as a specific variant form of the concept
(i.e., as one among a group of instances that illustrate the concept.

What is the range of physical variation of the concept (i.e., how can instances vary without becoming something else)?

7) View the unit as part of a larger context.

How is it appropriately or typically classified? What is its typical position in a temporal sequence? In space, (i.e., in a scene or geographical array) in a system of classes?

2) View the unit as a dynamic object or event.

What physical features distinguish it from similar objects or events? In particular, what is its nucleus?

5) View the unit as a dynamic process.

How is it changing?

8) View the unit as a part of a larger, dynamic context.

How does it interact with and merge into its environment? Are its borders clear-cut or inderterminate?

3) View the unit as an abstract, multidimensional systems.

How are the components organized in relation to one another? More specifically, how are they related by class, in class systems, in temporal sequence, and in space?

6) View the unit as a multidimensional physical system.

How do particular instances of the system vary?

9) View the unit as an abstract system within a larger system.

What is its position in the larger system? What systemic features and components make it a part of the larger system?



(Young, Beck, and Pike 123)

3 Different Ways th Focus on the Same Events
1) Focus on different parts of the whole at different times
2) Focus on two different parts simultaneously (nuclear and marginal)
3) Focus on a unit at different levels of magnification

4 Strategies of Inquiry
1) Preparation (initial awareness of difficulty, formulation of the difficulty as a problem, exploration of the problem)
2) Inculation (subconscious activitiy that continues even after the individual has switched his/her attentions to different matters)
3) Illumination (Imaginative leap to a possible solution/hypothesis--tends to appear by accident or by intuition)
4) Verification (testing period of the solution/hypothesis to see if it holds water or if there are inadequacies that need to be addressed)

3 Basic Tests for Evaluating the Hypothesis
1) Correspondence with actual experience (Is the hypothesis supported by immediate experience?)
2) Consistent with the fund of accumulated, reliable knowledge (Is the hypothesis consistent with the inquireer's knowledge system?)
3) Useful in solving problems (Is the hypothesis useful for solving the problem?)

Adapted from
Youg, Richard E. Alton L. Becker, and Kenneth L. Pike. Rhetoric: Discovery and Change. New York: Harcourt, 1970.