Structures of Argumentation

Aristotelian Argument
Introduction
(includes one or more of the following)
Exordium: The beginning or opening words, designed to win attention and good will by introducing the case in an interesting and favorable light.
Exposition or Narration: An account of the history of the case (what gave rise to the present problem;
how the issues developed)
Direct statement of the case (the proposition to be proved or defended--thesis).
Division of Proofs: An outline of how the writer will present the evidence


Body
(includes the following)
Confirmation of case by presenting evidence in its favor (includes one or more of the following):
facts
reasons
statistics
testimony of experts
opinions supported by facts
reports
examples
logical reasoning (inductive or deductive)
analogy
Acknowledge merit of opposing view

Refutation of opposing views by demonstrating that they are:
untrue
illogical
self-contradictory
ambiguous (terms not clearly defined)
dishonest ( a deliberate attempt to deceive)
absurd

Conclusion
(includes one or more of the following)
Recapitulation and summary of argument: to repeat is to reinforce and make certain readers
have not misunderstood.
Peroration: A final, heightened appeal for support.
Propose a solution.

The Toulmin Argument
This argument is based on informal logic; that is, the argument is not strictly limited to claims built on universal truths.  Rather, the argument you present can be based on probability, what the audience is likely to believe, and arguments which appeal to emotion. 

The basic parts of the Toulmin argument that we will deal with are:

Claim:
a statement of your position on the issue

Modal qualifier:
an admission, often just in a word, that your claim is not necessarily true 100% of the time

Grounds:
the reasons that support your claim

Warrants:
commonly held assumptions as well as why and how  your grounds support the claim--in other words, you will likely need to explain why your examples, illustrations, and facts support the claim

Rebuttal:
an acknowledgement and response to points of view other than your own (note that there will likely be multiple points of view that are not in agreement with yours)
Rogerian Essay Format
Opening
Summarization of your opposition’s position
When, where, and in what circumstances you opposition has a point
  • What are the points that the opposition is trying to make?
  • Why are these points relevant?
  • Are these points credible? Why?
Summarization of your side’s position
When, where, and in what circumstances your side has a point
  • What are the points that I feel need to be made?
  • Why are they important?
  • Are these points credible? Why?
Recognition of common ground and benefits of each side
  • What do both sides think the social impact of these points is?
Conclusion and possible area of compromise
Causal Arguments

This particular argument relates to cause and effect. It can  range from stating a cause and examining the effects of that cause to discussing an effect and tracing that effect back to its causes to presenting an argument that goes through a series of links.

Claim: A causes (or is caused by) B for the following reasons:

Reasons:
1
2
3

Warrants:

Evidence: